SDNM-096 Hiromi Yaguchi 10 Hours All The Time C... Extra Quality
To investigate carotenoid content in the retina of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), for comparison with carotenoids in human retina, and to assess the effects of different saponification procedures on the recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified with methods adapted from recent studies, then identified and quantified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from quail retina, we varied base concentration and the total time of saponification across a wide range and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations among conditions. Astaxanthin and galloxanthin were the dominant carotenoids recovered in the quail retina, along with smaller amounts of five other carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, 3'-epilutein, epsilon-carotene, and an unidentified carotenoid). Astaxanthin was sensitive to saponification conditions; recovery was poor with strong bases (0.2 and 0.5 M KOH) and best with weak bases (0.01 and 0.2 M KOH). In contrast, xanthophyll carotenoids (galloxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, and the unknown) were best recovered with strong base after 6 hours of saponification at room temperature. The recovery of epsilon-carotene was not affected by saponification conditions. Separate chemical hydrolysis procedures--using a strong base to recover xanthophylls and a weak base to recover astaxanthin--should be used for maximizing recovery of quail retinal carotenoids. Because the dominant carotenoids in quail retina are absent in human retina, and because of their different packaging (e.g., esterified in oil droplets) and light-absorbance properties compared with xanthophylls in the human eye, use of the quail as a model organism for studying human retinal carotenoids should be approached with caution.
SDNM-096 Hiromi Yaguchi 10 Hours All The Time C...
The effects of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), a component of diesel exhaust, on reproductive function were investigated in adult male Japanese quail. The quail were treated with a single i.m. dose of PNMC (78, 103 or 135 mg/kg body weight), and trunk blood and testes were collected 1, 2 or 4 weeks later. Various levels of testicular atrophy were observed in all groups treated with PNMC. Sperm formation, cloacal gland area, and plasma LH and testosterone concentrations were also reduced in birds with testicular atrophy. To determine the acute effect of PNMC on gonadotrophin from the pituitary, adult male quail were administrated a single i.m. injection of PNMC (25 mg/kg), and plasma concentrations of LH were measured at 1, 3 and 6 h. This dose significantly lowered plasma levels of LH at all three time points. These results suggest that PNMC acts on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, by reducing circulating LH within a few hours of administration and subsequently reducing testosterone secretion. In addition, in order to investigate the direct effects of PNMC on the secretion of testosterone from testicular cells in quail testes, cultured interstitial cells containing Leydig cells were exposed to PNMC (10(-6), 10(-5) or 10(-4) M) for 4, 8 or 24 h. These quantities of PNMC significantly reduced the secretion of testosterone in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The present findings also suggest a direct effect of PNMC on the testis to reduce testosterone secretion. This study clearly indicates that PNMC induces reproductive toxicity at both the central and testicular levels, and disrupts testicular function in adult male quail.
Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), andmore averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables. less 041b061a72